Smart Environment

SMART ENVIRONMENT

1. The idea to build an environment with embedded sensors, displays, and computing devices so that users can better understand and control the environment. 2. A physical world interwoven with invisible sensors, actuators, displays, and computational elements. These computing elements are generally embedded seamlessly in everyday objects and networked to each other and beyond (the internet, usually). 3. is a physical space which is smart in mature. The smartness of this environment is a product of interaction of different devices and computing systems. 4. An ecosystem of interacting objects, e.g. sensors, devices, appliances and embedded systems in general, that have the capability to self-organize, to provide services and manipulate/publish complex data.

  • Water/River Pollution

    Imagine a river that runs a length of 2500 kilometers and supports the livelihood of more than 600 million people. This is almost one tenth of humanity.

    Now one would expect the people living on its banks, to ensure that this river remains pristine! But unfortunately this is not the case. This river has become the dumping ground for all kinds of waste - industrial effluents, sewage, animal waste....

    The river we are talking about, is the Ganges. The government of the land is putting in place an IoT based strategy to check pollution in real time. It is planning to set up 113 water quality monitoring stations along the length of the river. These monitoring stations would measure water quality and alert authorities in the event the parameters cross safe threshold limits.

    The rest of this write-up presents an illustrated explanation of the problem and its proposed solution.

    How does a river get polluted?

    How does a river get polluted?

    Rivers that run through major cities are polluted by dumping of untreated human waste and unchecked flow of industrial effluents.
    What harm is caused by a polluted river?
    If polluted river water is used for drinking or bathing, it can cause several waterborne diseases.
    How is water pollution monitored in real time?

    How is water pollution monitored in real time?

    The water quality monitoring station consists of submerged sensors, which measure water parameters such as pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), turbidity and temperature. These parameters are sampled few times every hour, and its value is transmitted to a central computer. A local alarm is sounded if the upstream monitoring station detects unsafe water quality parameter levels.
    How was water pollution monitored earlier?

    How was water pollution monitored earlier?

    Before the availability of on-line water quality sensors and data transmission equipment, water samples were physically collected from the river multiple times a day. These water samples were taken to a lab for determining the water quality. By the time the authorities came to know about deteriorating water quality - it was too late to identify the polluting source.
    Location of water monitoring stations

    Location of water monitoring stations

    These monitoring stations would be placed before major bathing locations - such as holy city of Varanasi. Major industries will have a local monitoring setup to monitor their effluent discharge.
    Upstream or Downstream monitoring

    Upstream or Downstream monitoring

    Upstream water quality is monitored for a drinking water plant. Whereas downstream monitoring is used for waste water processing plants.
    Overview of the monitoring setup

    Overview of the monitoring setup

    The monitoring stations are located close to major cities and industrial areas; along the length of the river. Each monitoring station communicates via cellular network to a regional and central computer.
    IoT nature of pollution monitoring

    IoT nature of pollution monitoring

    The monitoring stations collate and periodically send water quality data packets to a central computer. The central computer using data from the length of the river determines which sections of the river are most heavily polluted. It also detects changes in water quality parameters based on the window of sampling interval.
    City Pollution

    City Pollution

    An adverse change in the water quality is precisely determined in a finite amount of time. Local authorities are alerted in the event of change with precise location of the pollution. The culpable polluting industry or waste water treatment plant malfunction is identified and corrective action is taken.

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